This is a universal problem that will be real some centuries later. To explore the impact upon the space architecture, planning, presenting, 3D printing of space architectural projects on the most sustainable way on the given space lands.
RESEARCHABLE QUESTIONS ABOUT SPACE DWELLING:
- What are the instructors’ and students’ role to be aware of space architecture and design, and space architects’ awareness and duty about space for the future?
- Even though there will not be a very early move to space but space tourism will certainly appear and apart from astronauts, ordinal people could travel to space. When the earliest space tourism is and what their architectural requirements are.
- What kind of climate is there on those lands which will be the placement spot of each monument? Where are the similar places on the Earth to the outer places? What are its features?
- Are there regular natural disasters on those lands such as moonquakes and marsquakes, landslides, hurricanes-tornadoes, cloud-rain-lighting strikes, heat, and freezing waves and winds? Where are the similar places on the Earth to the outer places? What are its features.
- How to design and locate according to those all environmental effects and natural disasters, additionally the meteorite crashes? Will it be possible to have locally specific Lunar, Martian Vernacular Architecture?
- One of the serious issues is the materials that will be used in space architectural design; will these be supplied from the land itself or procured from the earth?
- How cost to carry construction components from Earth or produce on the land itself and what will be about sustainability and continuity?
- Are there any efficient mining, stones, metal ingredients that will be used in architectural erection on those lands? How is the land type of the moon and mars for erecting on it or under it?
- What are the ground materials of space usable land or how extent pre-fabricated components will work for such kind of space projects?
- What are the structural differences about the material or erection method between residential areas, greenhouse areas or working lab areas in the space architecture?
- Extensive research will be about sustainability and recyclable materials. How to systemize these issues in future living lands?
- How to design habitats which will be the best solution for human physical and psychological health? How to make life as long term standing in the outer life?
- As known that recently 6800 tons of space debris in low earth orbit, 23000 tracked objects, 26000 untracked(<10 cm) objects of space satellites and specks of dust moved around in the space. Is it possible to use one of the last methods the RemoveDEBRIS(RemDeb) or a new method to collect and re-use for the space architecture those components? What will be the methods for this concept?
A BRIEF HISTORY OF SPACE AND HOW ARCHITECTURE HAD BEEN COMBINED WITH SPACE:
We have to build up the existence of us with the futuristic concept that how the human race will survive if there will be no more life on the earth. For this, architectural information came across to us to develop on this mission.
In the space adventure, ideas of people traveling to space were first seen in stories and films, like Jules Verne’s 1865 From the Earth to the Moon. In this story, the projectile was shaped like a bullet because it was gun-launched from the ground, a method infeasible for transporting the man to space due to the high acceleration forces produced. It would take rockery to get humans to the cosmos. The flight of Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961, was humanity’s maiden spaceflight. Following space missions gradually improved living conditions and quality of life in low Earth orbit. Expanding room for movement, physical exercise regimens, sanitation facilities, improved food quality, and recreational activities all accompanied longer mission durations. The first serious theoretical work published on space travel through rocket power was by the father of astronomy Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1903. Architectural involvement in space was realized in 1968 when a group of architects and industrial designers led by Raymond Loewy, over objections from engineers, prevailed in convincing NASA to include an observation window in the Skylab orbital laboratory. This milestone represents the introduction of the human psychological dimension to spacecraft design. Space architecture was born.
Space Architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space, responding to the deep human drive to explore and occupy new places. Architecture organizes and integrates the creation and enrichment of the built environment. Designing for space requires specialized knowledge of orbital mechanics, propulsion, weightlessness, hard vacuum, the psychology of hermetic environments, and other topics. Space Architecture has complementary relationships with diverse fields such as aerospace engineering,
terrestrial architecture, transportation design, medicine, human factors, space science, law, and art.
A BRIEF ANALYZE OF SPACE WORKS:
As seen in the science-fiction scenarios and from the nature of humankind, it is comprehendible that people have had so much curiosity about unknown all the time. From the source of these processes, people stepped forward into the unknown to make it known. It created a new aspect of architecture. Space architect is called those who develop ideas and suggestions for life forms to be built outside and beyond this world. These ideas cover a wide area covering the living spaces to be created on the planet, with the vehicle design going from Mars where the International Space Station is located to and beyond. Engineers managed to keep people alive in space, but this is not enough for them to stay there, and design begins where engineering ends. As NASA’s Chief Technologist Dawid W. Miller said; ‘’we need architects to go to space.’’ Hereby, we are as architects we have to take our place in this mission.
As known that we have not yet found a place in the solar system where we will live as in the world, the possibilities seem too far. However, there are limited opportunities in sheltered living areas. While Astronauts could survive out of the Earth for a limit of time and they ate pressed prepared foods from Earth but what if we need to survive long-term in outer space. Imagine a scenario that you try to cook a plate of omelets in the space which was the simplest one on the Earth. Hereby, Architectural Spatial projects spoke up for making the human race to survive outer space and make everything simpler. Space architects must move forward for each kind of spatial problems to survive longer and even eternal in the outer space.
There are more details in this title and we have to investigate and research all the critical points and then design our future habitats according to collected data. Thereby, sustainability, multi-functioning, multi-use, the low cost should be considered. However, who are the experts about collecting the data of Moon, Mars and beyond? Where can we find and contact experts about this title? And how can we check related projects?
SPACE AGENCIES AND RELATED SCHOOL AND ORGANIZATIONS:
- NASA(National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
- ISRO(Indian Space Research Organization)
- CNSA(Chinese National Space Agency)
- RosCosmos(Rusian Space Agency)
- ESA(European Space Agency)
- JAXA(Japanese Space Agency)
- ISU(International Space University)
- AIAA(American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics)
- SICSA(The University of Houston’s Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture)
- ASA, AEB, CSA-ASC, CSIRO, GISTDA, DLR, ISARS, ISA, KARI, CNES, CNIE, LAPAN, NSAU, NSPO, NASRDA, SRON, SUPORCO, CONIDA, RKA-RSA, SpaceX, TUBITAK, UNOOSA, ASME, BOEING are the other aviation and space agencies those collect information and data.
Recently there are new generation architectural branches, such as;
- Space Architecture-Aerospace Architecture
- Astro Architecture-Astrotecture(Starchitecture)
- Orbitary Architecture
- Planetary Architecture
- Double Space Architecture
- Spatial Parametric Architecture
- Spatial Sustainable Architecture
- Martian architecture
- Space Terrestrial Architecture
SIMILAR PLACES ON THE EARTH TO THE OUTER LANDS:
A starting point for space architecture theory is the search for extreme environments in terrestrial settings where humans have lived, and the formation of analogs between these environments and space. Prototypes of the designed module or building model can be testified at these extreme environments to see how it will work in the space selected area. Where can we test them then?
For instance, humans have lived in submarines deep in the ocean, in bunkers beneath the Earth’s surface, and also Antarctica and have safely entered burning buildings, radioactively contaminated zones, and the stratosphere with the help of technology. Antarctica has very special corner close to Inan Peak which had been named by Turkish Prof. Dr. Umran S. Inan that is McMurdo Dry Valley (MDVs-1700m above sea level; mean temperature -23 C), it is the driest and the coldest place on the Earth and the most similar place to the Mars. Moreover, The Mars Desert Research Station is located in the Utah desert because of its relative similarity to the Martian surface. Space missions, especially human ones, require extensive preparation. The Flash line Mars Arctic Research Station is a simulated Mars base, maintained by the Mars Society, on Canada’s remote Devon Island. The project aims to create conditions as similar as possible to a real Mars mission and attempts to establish ideal crew size, test equipment “in the field”, and determine the best extra-vehicular activity suits and procedures. To train for EVAs in microgravity, space agencies make broad use of underwater and simulator training. Technology development and astronaut training in space-analogous environments are essential to making living in space possible.
Moreover, there could be natural disasters on the martial, lunar and the rest of the other spatial lands. After we investigate those kinds of disasters where we planned to build up our structure, we can find similar lands on the earth and test projects there or simulate it with a prototype model and simulation system and also with the digital programs. There are roles of Space Architects (Astro-Architects) because, Space architecture is the intersection of the skills and knowledge required to design an aesthetic and functional habitat, using the knowledge of what it takes to work, live and operate in space or other extreme environments. For knowing where the extreme environment is on the Earth, initially, we have to know how extreme is outer lands itself. How extreme lands and problems do space have according to a minimum and maximum human survival time
THE MARTIAN AND LUNAR RESOURCES, FUTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SETTLEMENT:
Martian architecture is an architecture designed to sustain human life on the surface of Mars, and all the supporting systems necessary to make this possible. The direct sampling of water ice on the surface and evidence for geyser-like water flows within the last decade have made Mars the most likely extraterrestrial environment for finding liquid water, and therefore alien life, in the Solar System. Moreover, some geologic evidence suggests that Mars could have been warm and wet on a global scale in its distant past. Although Mars has an atmosphere, it is thin and the biggest issue is that there is high radiation over there. Its surface pressure is less than 1% of Earth’s. Its surface gravity is about 38% of Earth’s. Additionally, a notable difference between the space architecture and the Earth architecture in the context of the orbit is that orbiting structures do not have to support their weight. One of the biggest threats to astronaut safety in space is sudden radiation events from solar flares.
Additionally, Mars’ atmosphere is very different from Earth’s in composition; such as density and pressure. Martian structures would need to be pressurized; to carry out these tests the best place is underwater. To summarize, researchers would need to combine earth’s coldest and driest locations and then submerge them in water to accurately test a Martian habitat here on Earth. Going beyond including flexible furniture and physical spatial layouts, the crews’ biometric signals can be used to alter the environment in real-time to adjust the temperature based on a given member’s core temperature or adjust the oxygen flow based on pulse oximetry readings.
General Director of ESA Johann-Dietrich Wörner says:
– An alliance between private and public, space and non-space entities that will enable going forward to the Moon inclusively and sustainably.
Ph.D. Lic. Eng. Director of (SICSA)Sasakawa International Centre for Space Architecture at the University of Houston Olga Bannova says:
-The conditions on Mars are also very dry, which can only be compared with the driest parts of the Atacama Desert in Chile.
-Day temperatures around the Martian equator may be considered similar to Earth and can reach 70 degrees Fahrenheit, but drop to a scary -100 degrees Fahrenheit during the night, which can only be compared to continental Antarctica.
-The Moon is full of readily accessible minerals and compounds that could be used to produce metals, bricks, glass, and paints. The moon is also riddled with ‘lava tubes’, great cavernous volumes under the surface that could be made habitable, offering protection from radiation and solar storms.
-My approach is to design spaces that can be adjustable and multifunctional, especially personal quarters where the crew should be able to modify the space to their liking.
-We don’t know how people will feel once they are already on Mars. The crew may discover that whatever was pre-designed for them on Earth doesn’t serve them best on Mars and has to be changed.
-Currently, everything we may need to sustain habitation on Mars needs to be brought there from Earth.
On the other hand, there is another concept of using material of land itself. Therefore, how much success is the recent spatial projects to be able to survive out of the Earth?
SOME SPATIAL PROJECTS:
Although a human expedition to Mars has not yet taken place, there has been significant work on Martian habitat design. Martian architecture usually falls into one of two categories: architecture imported from Earth fully assembled and architecture making use of local resources. Every space project of each space agency will be investigated about the material, concept, method, whether it is the project which is imported from Earth or had been used local sources. There is some instance of the projects, such as; Moon Village Projects of ESA(European Space Agency), Foster + Partners Works related to Space, Tesserae Project, MARSHA construction process, Mars Incubator Design, Wojtek Fikusi, Red Works and the other rest of projects Bubble, Hemispheric bases, etc. Moreover, NASA had a winner of the competition with the name of the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, the house projects of astronauts in 2030.
“The first habitats on Mars are not going to be 3D printed. They are going to be prefabricated and are going to be landed by brute force,” says Jeffrey Montes, Extra planetary Habitats & Systems Lead, AI Space Factory.
Daniel Inocente the Architect of Moon Village Project said the three key criteria for evaluating a site for optimal development are the terrain, presence of water, and the existence of resources. The moon’s principal resources inside the regolith are silicate and oxide minerals. Inocente said accessing those materials would allow the production of tension structures, and composite structures to shield radiation. And as Researchers said there is a lot of lunar water present on the moon, and NASA wants to learn how to mine it.
Several specific habitat design proposals have been put forward to varying degrees of architectural and engineering analysis. One recent proposal and the winner of NASA’s 2015 Mars Habitat Competition is Mars Ice House. The design concept is for a Mars surface habitat, 3d-printed in layers out of water ice on the interior of an Earth-manufactured inflatable pressure retention membrane. The completed structure would be semi-transparent, absorbing harmful radiation in several wavelengths, while admitting approximately 50 percent of light in the visible spectrum. The habitat is proposed to be entirely set up and built from an autonomous robotic spacecraft and bots, although human habitation with approximately 2–4 inhabitants is envisioned once the habitat is fully built and tested. Each project will inform us as regards to the questions. As space architecture continues to mature as a discipline, dialogue on architectural design values will open up just as it has for Earth.
-‘I do not think the human race will survive the next thousand years unless we spread into space. There are too many accidents that can befall life on a single planet. But I’m an optimist. We will reach out to the stars.’, ‘if there is life, there is hope.’ (Stefan Hawking)
USEFUL SOURCES OF INFORMATION:
*AIAA, Space Technology Conference, Long Beach, California, 23-25 September 2003 (Space Architecture – An overview relationship with general architecture profession)
*SATC, (Space Architecture Technical Committee) How to become a Space Architect, 2nd Edition, 2014
*ESA, Acta Futura Issue 10 Space Architecture
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